German Foreign Policy and European Integration

It was the one of the ordinary days in the German streets, in Berlin. I saw a huge crowd near the Angleterre Hotel in the Berlin. At the beginning I wonder why the people were gathered there but when I was keeping on walking and going closer, I understood why the people were gathered there. There was a discussion between a Turkish man who lives in Germany and a German citizen, and a German man in the street that nearly turn in to a fight because of the religious clothes of Turkish man. Today in Germany, the situation of the Turks started to talk much harder than ever, like in the early 1900s the debate of the situation of the Jews in the Germany. What were the factors of German abhorrence to Jews And today what are the drawbacks of Germans about Turkish people Are they any common points What are the differences of these two issues How these issues are affect the portrait of Germans among the Europeans And how these issues affected and will affect the German foreign policy among Israel and Turkey In this paper I am going to seek for the answers of these questions in the above.
Firstly, I will begin the paper with the ???Holocaust??? of the Germany which means fully burned in ancient Greek. What were the reasons of the Holocaust In order to understand better I should ask two question because these two question s take us directly to answer of the problems that Jews lived in Nazis period. First question is why did the Germans (Nazis) accused Jews as a reason of the every bad situation that happened after World War I In this question we can see three reasons. What are they Firstly, when we look at the whole picture in the Europe at that time, we can see that, not only Germans abominated from Jews but also whole Europe abominated from Jews, it was so this abhorrence mainly rooted in the Anti-Semitic tradition of the Europe. Secondly, According to Vogelsang, in the Nazis period the anti- Semitism, which means a jaundice and antagonism as a group, turned in to a racist biological anti-Semitism which accused Jews of ???deformity of the body politics???. (Vogelsang & Larsen, 2002) The third reason of this question is Jews were always seen as a problem to society because they were rich rather than Germans especially after the World War I because after the war as we knew the Germany was nearly destroyed. As a result of that when Hitler came to power he searched for the Scapegoat and found Jewish people because as I said before Jewish people were rich and the German middle class was not. Hitler used Communism for this situation and present Jews as biggest threat for the German middle class. (Vogelsang & Larsen, 2002) Now I should ask the second question which is why the Jews killed. Especially this question is a huge debate among the historians. One group of historians says that Hitler was always planned to kill all the Jews, and the other group argues these are the results of Hitler??™s radical policies among Jewish people. (Vogelsang & Larsen, 2002) According to Vogelsang, in the German occupied lands, Jews seen as the evil and they created great discomfort so for them the best way was disappearance of the Jews because the Nazis can only achieved their goals with this way: ???a Greater Germany free from Jews.??? (Vogelsang & Larsen, 2002) To achieve this goal especially at the beginning they tried different plans like voluntary and the forced migration but when they tried these plans, they experienced the genocide and according to Vogelsang the Nazis killed 6 million Jews. (Vogelsang & Larsen, 2002)
After I talked about the history of Germany??™s Jews, now I am going to talk about the historical background of the Turkish identity in Germany. When did the Turks immigrate to the Germany Why did the Turks immigrate to the Germany When did the Turks start to be a problem for the Germans Are that problems still problems for Germans Now in this paragraph I am going to answer these questions. Firstly, in the history, the Turkish settlement in Germany started in the early 1800s, but the main part of migration wave that created today??™s portrait of the Germany, started in 1960s with the economic miracle for Germany. In 1961, after the finish of World War II, the result of war became a labor shortage for Germany, and Germany needed the Turkish labors from Turkey to be worked in the factories. As a result of that our story would begin with this demand. In 1961 Turks got in a train and came to Germany in order to work in the factories. At the beginning when I examine the portrait of this new comer Turks, in Germany, according to the White, ???they were mostly villagers, rural migrants with a dream of earning money and a secure life back in Turkey.??? (White, 1997) With respect to White??™s ideas I will try to explain the problems between German people and the Turkish people from 1961 to present in three dynamics. What are they They are religious, cultural and lifestyle, educational differences.
Firstly, I want to examine the ???religious??? differences and the opinions from both sides about the differences. Is Islam a bad thing for Germans Why Islam is a bad thing for Germans because they saw Islam as a Christian unity of Germany, in other words they felt like invaded from inside. Mark Lander explained this problem that I talked, in his article ???Germans Split over a Mosque and the Role of the Islam???. He discussed that situation with the example of a campaign in Cologne. In cologne, a Muslim population which is occurred from largely Turks established a campaign about building a mosque which becomes one of the biggest mosques in Germany. Over this campaign he made a several interview with the religious leaders of he communities in Germany and took their ideas about the Mosque and the Islam. The research shows us that there is a huge annoyance against Muslims Turks in Germany. For example, Ralph Giordano, who is one of the German Jewish writers that was interviewed with Lander, said ???an expression of the creeping Islamization of our land.??? (Lander, 2007) Also in the interview, he had no fear to say his annoyance about the women who walks with veils in the street. Also the research shows us about the annoyance not only about being invaded but also about the barriers of learning because of religion. Mr. Fritz Schramma, who is a member of center right Christian Democratic Union says ???It bothers me when people have lived here for 35 years and they don??™t speak a single word of German??? (Lander, 2007) What he is trying to say from this quotation is when people become a member of a religious community in a foreign country, he or she make himself or herself isolated from the society and become a threat for national security and the society. In the same article Giordano says ??? false tolerance??? with underlying that in the nine eleven Metin Kaplan, a militant who hijacked one of the planes and used it as a bomb in USA attacks, known as the caliph of Cologne. (Lander, 2007) Also his friend Mr. Broder who is a Jewish journalist says ???A mosque is more than a church or a synagogue. It is a political statement.??? (Lander, 2007) As I written so the scholars annoyed ???Islam??? in Germany because firstly it averted the integration of a people to a society, also and more than that this creates an available space for some groups to manipulate these isolated people to transform as a terrorist, or a person become a problem for German culture and national security of Germany.
Secondly, I want to examine the differences in culture of both communities. As I said it before, the first Turks who migrate to Germany in 1961 were mostly villagers, and rural migrants. What does it mean I mean because they were villagers, they even did not know t it look like to be a urban people so they did not know how to be a city life so that??™s why, when they got off from the train, a world which was completely different corresponded to them. This world was completely different from the world that they knew in Turkey, and when they faced with that they suffered from that so much. They created small communities among them and isolated themselves from the society that they went. This was the way that Turkish people chose to integrate into the German society because if they chose to integrate in a practical way, they become alienated from their family so they were afraid to lose their family and chose to protect them. According to White, ???German scholars defined Turkish population in Germany ???neither German nor Turk???, they are ???between cultures???. (White, 1997) So, with choosing protection of their family, and refuse practical integration to German society, the Turks created hybrid culture which is the mixture of the strong German and Strong Turkish identity. (Simon & Ruhs, 2008) If I want to give an example to that phenomenon, I should talk about the life of the Semra in Germany. Semra is a young university student in German university that talks about the policies of Germans over Turks. She says ???I think what they want is assimilation. What they want it not wants to see no more women with headscarves in the street.??? (White, 2007) Also she says ???when you invite people to a diner, (German friends), they ask is there any pork And I answer sorry; I don??™t eat Pork because I am Muslim??? (White, 2007)
In the third case, I want to talk about educational differences of German society and the Turkish society. In 1961, when the ???Recruitment Agreement for Labor??? signed between the Turkish government and the German government, and people got on the train to way to Germany, as I said before they were mostly villagers and the rural people who were living in the rural areas of the Turkey. What does it mean to be a rural person What I am trying to say is, these people were uneducated people and they even did not know German language. At the beginning, the Germans thought that the Turks would return their homeland, but unlike the expectations of the Germans, the high percentage of the migrants agreed to settle in Germany permanently. (Mueller, 2005) As a result of that, the Germans felt annoyance about this situation because they did not the educated class of the Turkey, they even did not get used to the living condition of the Germany, and when the Germans can not carry these people at their level, the real annoyance started to be expressed by the Germans to these people. In my opinion, actually, this is the roots of the all topics which are education, cultural, and religious problems. Germans want to transform, in some how assimilate Turks and make them Germans in the sense of education, culture and religion, and when the Turks refuse it the annoyance occurred. If you look at the speech of the Semra??™s, you can feel it in her words.
To this point, I tried to talk about the historical perspective of Germans to Jews and Turks. From this point, now I will try to explain the Germany??™s foreign policy over Turks and Jews.
In this part of my paper, I am going to start examining the German foreign policy over Turks, in Schroder period and in Merkel period.
Firstly, Schroder who is the leader of the Social Democratic Party (SPD), mainly support to the full membership of the Turkey. Now the people have asked the question why According to the Wood and Quaissar, Schroder supported the full membership of Turkey to the EU because they want to gain electoral benefits. In the Schroder??™s period the German??™s economy was too bad and the regulations restricts German Labor Market. In 2004, the polls, shows that, big portion of the society in Germany, refused Turkey??™s membership to EU, but against all of these polls according to Wood and Quassar, The Schroder government supported introduction of the referendums about whether Turkey should in EU or out in EU??™s agenda.(Wood & Quaissar, 2005) Why They supported turkey??™s accession because they want to gain electoral profit from it. According to Wood and Quaissar, one study shows 62% of the Turkish origin German gave their vote to SPD and 22% of Turkish origin people gave their vote to the Greens. (Wood & Quaissar, 2005) If you calculate these votes , you will be understand that how much it is important for Schroder and his followers to get these votes. Now I have a question, if Schroder took all of these votes, how they lost the elections They lost the elections because the he miscalculated the group who are in the party but against the Turkey and this group of voters gave their votes to CDU. (Wood & Quaissar, 2005)
After I talked about the reason of Schroder??™s support among Turkey??™s membership to EU, now I am going to examine the Merkel??™s period, and Merkel??™s policy over Turkey and Turkey??™s membership to EU.
When I examine the Merkel period, the following questions, become important for me: Who is Merkel What does Merkel think about Turkey and Turkey??™s membership to EU
Firstly, if I answer the question, which Merkel is, she is the chairwoman of the Christian Democratic union (CDU), which is a right wing party. Why is this important According to the Hakan Y?lmaz, in Euro barometer surveys in Germany, and the France, leading center- right parties, are the parties who are officially against the Turkey??™s EU membership. According to him, the main dividing whether the policy supports the Turkey or not very related with the ruling party in the country that appears to be in the right wing or in the left wing. (Y?lmaz, 2007)
With these clashes between the right and the left parties, in the right parties, there are some groups argues that Turkey is not in the incline borders of the Europe. According to the Hakan Y?lmaz??™s example ???these groups put a big red cross over the European Map??? with arguing that Turkey is not strengthen the European image when you look at its sociological, cultural, religious, geographical, and political grounds.??? (Y?lmaz, 2007)
Second thing that Hakan Y?lmaz mentioned in his article is the ???bad image of Islam??? on the vantage point of the Europeans. According to him, Europeans did not contrary to Islam in the means of theology but they are contrary to it because of its expression in the public life. In his article Y?lmaz made a research with the European people who came to Turkey, and saw that most of them contrary to Islam not in the means of theology but in the expressing the way of life. When I look at his words, I can see that Europeans are susceptible about expression of Islam in the daily life. They are contrary to Islam because of Gender inequality. Headscarf issue is a symbol of passivity of women in the public life and it is not acceptable for the Europeans. (Y?lmaz, 2007) Also in the same article Y?lmaz talked about the research that ask European people about how Democracy and Islam related with each other and if the radical Islam is a danger for Europe or not, and the answer to these questions was shocking. According to him, 95% of Germans believe that radical Islam is a serious danger for Europe and 98% in Germany again believe that values of Islam is not consistent with democracy. (Y?lmaz, 2007)

Now when I look at the political views about Turkey in the above, I can see that they are very much related with the examples that I gave in the above about the Turkish German citizens who live in the Germany. As you remember, I was talking about the interview that Jewish journalist says his opinion ???an expression of the creeping Islamization of our land.???, when the Turkish people stressed the government about making a mosque in Cologne. Also inIt was the one of the ordinary days in the German streets, in Berlin. I saw a huge crowd near the Angleterre Hotel in the Berlin. At the beginning I wonder why the people were gathered there but when I was keeping on walking and going closer, I understood why the people were gathered there. There was a discussion between a Turkish man who lives in Germany and a German citizen, and a German man in the street that nearly turn in to a fight because of the religious clothes of Turkish man. Today in Germany, the situation of the Turks started to talk much harder than ever, like in the early 1900s the debate of the situation of the Jews in the Germany. What were the factors of German abhorrence to Jews And today what are the drawbacks of Germans about Turkish people Are they any common points What are the differences of these two issues How these issues are affect the portrait of Germans among the Europeans And how these issues affected and will affect the German foreign policy among Israel and Turkey In this paper I am going to seek for the answers of these questions in the above.
Firstly, I will begin the paper with the ???Holocaust??? of the Germany which means fully burned in ancient Greek. What were the reasons of the Holocaust In order to understand better I should ask two question because these two question s take us directly to answer of the problems that Jews lived in Nazis period. First question is why did the Germans (Nazis) accused Jews as a reason of the every bad situation that happened after World War I In this question we can see three reasons. What are they Firstly, when we look at the whole picture in the Europe at that time, we can see that, not only Germans abominated from Jews but also whole Europe abominated from Jews, it was so this abhorrence mainly rooted in the Anti-Semitic tradition of the Europe. Secondly, According to Vogelsang, in the Nazis period the anti- Semitism, which means a jaundice and antagonism as a group, turned in to a racist biological anti-Semitism which accused Jews of ???deformity of the body politics???. (Vogelsang & Larsen, 2002) The third reason of this question is Jews were always seen as a problem to society because they were rich rather than Germans especially after the World War I because after the war as we knew the Germany was nearly destroyed. As a result of that when Hitler came to power he searched for the Scapegoat and found Jewish people because as I said before Jewish people were rich and the German middle class was not. Hitler used Communism for this situation and present Jews as biggest threat for the German middle class. (Vogelsang & Larsen, 2002) Now I should ask the second question which is why the Jews killed. Especially this question is a huge debate among the historians. One group of historians says that Hitler was always planned to kill all the Jews, and the other group argues these are the results of Hitler??™s radical policies among Jewish people. (Vogelsang & Larsen, 2002) According to Vogelsang, in the German occupied lands, Jews seen as the evil and they created great discomfort so for them the best way was disappearance of the Jews because the Nazis can only achieved their goals with this way: ???a Greater Germany free from Jews.??? (Vogelsang & Larsen, 2002) To achieve this goal especially at the beginning they tried different plans like voluntary and the forced migration but when they tried these plans, they experienced the genocide and according to Vogelsang the Nazis killed 6 million Jews. (Vogelsang & Larsen, 2002)
After I talked about the history of Germany??™s Jews, now I am going to talk about the historical background of the Turkish identity in Germany. When did the Turks immigrate to the Germany Why did the Turks immigrate to the Germany When did the Turks start to be a problem for the Germans Are that problems still problems for Germans Now in this paragraph I am going to answer these questions. Firstly, in the history, the Turkish settlement in Germany started in the early 1800s, but the main part of migration wave that created today??™s portrait of the Germany, started in 1960s with the economic miracle for Germany. In 1961, after the finish of World War II, the result of war became a labor shortage for Germany, and Germany needed the Turkish labors from Turkey to be worked in the factories. As a result of that our story would begin with this demand. In 1961 Turks got in a train and came to Germany in order to work in the factories. At the beginning when I examine the portrait of this new comer Turks, in Germany, according to the White, ???they were mostly villagers, rural migrants with a dream of earning money and a secure life back in Turkey.??? (White, 1997) With respect to White??™s ideas I will try to explain the problems between German people and the Turkish people from 1961 to present in three dynamics. What are they They are religious, cultural and lifestyle, educational differences.
Firstly, I want to examine the ???religious??? differences and the opinions from both sides about the differences. Is Islam a bad thing for Germans Why Islam is a bad thing for Germans because they saw Islam as a Christian unity of Germany, in other words they felt like invaded from inside. Mark Lander explained this problem that I talked, in his article ???Germans Split over a Mosque and the Role of the Islam???. He discussed that situation with the example of a campaign in Cologne. In cologne, a Muslim population which is occurred from largely Turks established a campaign about building a mosque which becomes one of the biggest mosques in Germany. Over this campaign he made a several interview with the religious leaders of he communities in Germany and took their ideas about the Mosque and the Islam. The research shows us that there is a huge annoyance against Muslims Turks in Germany. For example, Ralph Giordano, who is one of the German Jewish writers that was interviewed with Lander, said ???an expression of the creeping Islamization of our land.??? (Lander, 2007) Also in the interview, he had no fear to say his annoyance about the women who walks with veils in the street. Also the research shows us about the annoyance not only about being invaded but also about the barriers of learning because of religion. Mr. Fritz Schramma, who is a member of center right Christian Democratic Union says ???It bothers me when people have lived here for 35 years and they don??™t speak a single word of German??? (Lander, 2007) What he is trying to say from this quotation is when people become a member of a religious community in a foreign country, he or she make himself or herself isolated from the society and become a threat for national security and the society. In the same article Giordano says ??? false tolerance??? with underlying that in the nine eleven Metin Kaplan, a militant who hijacked one of the planes and used it as a bomb in USA attacks, known as the caliph of Cologne. (Lander, 2007) Also his friend Mr. Broder who is a Jewish journalist says ???A mosque is more than a church or a synagogue. It is a political statement.??? (Lander, 2007) As I written so the scholars annoyed ???Islam??? in Germany because firstly it averted the integration of a people to a society, also and more than that this creates an available space for some groups to manipulate these isolated people to transform as a terrorist, or a person become a problem for German culture and national security of Germany.
Secondly, I want to examine the differences in culture of both communities. As I said it before, the first Turks who migrate to Germany in 1961 were mostly villagers, and rural migrants. What does it mean I mean because they were villagers, they even did not know t it look like to be a urban people so they did not know how to be a city life so that??™s why, when they got off from the train, a world which was completely different corresponded to them. This world was completely different from the world that they knew in Turkey, and when they faced with that they suffered from that so much. They created small communities among them and isolated themselves from the society that they went. This was the way that Turkish people chose to integrate into the German society because if they chose to integrate in a practical way, they become alienated from their family so they were afraid to lose their family and chose to protect them. According to White, ???German scholars defined Turkish population in Germany ???neither German nor Turk???, they are ???between cultures???. (White, 1997) So, with choosing protection of their family, and refuse practical integration to German society, the Turks created hybrid culture which is the mixture of the strong German and Strong Turkish identity. (Simon & Ruhs, 2008) If I want to give an example to that phenomenon, I should talk about the life of the Semra in Germany. Semra is a young university student in German university that talks about the policies of Germans over Turks. She says ???I think what they want is assimilation. What they want it not wants to see no more women with headscarves in the street.??? (White, 2007) Also she says ???when you invite people to a diner, (German friends), they ask is there any pork And I answer sorry; I don??™t eat Pork because I am Muslim??? (White, 2007)
In the third case, I want to talk about educational differences of German society and the Turkish society. In 1961, when the ???Recruitment Agreement for Labor??? signed between the Turkish government and the German government, and people got on the train to way to Germany, as I said before they were mostly villagers and the rural people who were living in the rural areas of the Turkey. What does it mean to be a rural person What I am trying to say is, these people were uneducated people and they even did not know German language. At the beginning, the Germans thought that the Turks would return their homeland, but unlike the expectations of the Germans, the high percentage of the migrants agreed to settle in Germany permanently. (Mueller, 2005) As a result of that, the Germans felt annoyance about this situation because they did not the educated class of the Turkey, they even did not get used to the living condition of the Germany, and when the Germans can not carry these people at their level, the real annoyance started to be expressed by the Germans to these people. In my opinion, actually, this is the roots of the all topics which are education, cultural, and religious problems. Germans want to transform, in some how assimilate Turks and make them Germans in the sense of education, culture and religion, and when the Turks refuse it the annoyance occurred. If you look at the speech of the Semra??™s, you can feel it in her words.
To this point, I tried to talk about the historical perspective of Germans to Jews and Turks. From this point, now I will try to explain the Germany??™s foreign policy over Turks and Jews.
In this part of my paper, I am going to start examining the German foreign policy over Turks, in Schroder period and in Merkel period.
Firstly, Schroder who is the leader of the Social Democratic Party (SPD), mainly support to the full membership of the Turkey. Now the people have asked the question why According to the Wood and Quaissar, Schroder supported the full membership of Turkey to the EU because they want to gain electoral benefits. In the Schroder??™s period the German??™s economy was too bad and the regulations restricts German Labor Market. In 2004, the polls, shows that, big portion of the society in Germany, refused Turkey??™s membership to EU, but against all of these polls according to Wood and Quassar, The Schroder government supported introduction of the referendums about whether Turkey should in EU or out in EU??™s agenda.(Wood & Quaissar, 2005) Why They supported turkey??™s accession because they want to gain electoral profit from it. According to Wood and Quaissar, one study shows 62% of the Turkish origin German gave their vote to SPD and 22% of Turkish origin people gave their vote to the Greens. (Wood & Quaissar, 2005) If you calculate these votes , you will be understand that how much it is important for Schroder and his followers to get these votes. Now I have a question, if Schroder took all of these votes, how they lost the elections They lost the elections because the he miscalculated the group who are in the party but against the Turkey and this group of voters gave their votes to CDU. (Wood & Quaissar, 2005)
After I talked about the reason of Schroder??™s support among Turkey??™s membership to EU, now I am going to examine the Merkel??™s period, and Merkel??™s policy over Turkey and Turkey??™s membership to EU.
When I examine the Merkel period, the following questions, become important for me: Who is Merkel What does Merkel think about Turkey and Turkey??™s membership to EU
Firstly, if I answer the question, which Merkel is, she is the chairwoman of the Christian Democratic union (CDU), which is a right wing party. Why is this important According to the Hakan Y?lmaz, in Euro barometer surveys in Germany, and the France, leading center- right parties, are the parties who are officially against the Turkey??™s EU membership. According to him, the main dividing whether the policy supports the Turkey or not very related with the ruling party in the country that appears to be in the right wing or in the left wing. (Y?lmaz, 2007)
With these clashes between the right and the left parties, in the right parties, there are some groups argues that Turkey is not in the incline borders of the Europe. According to the Hakan Y?lmaz??™s example ???these groups put a big red cross over the European Map??? with arguing that Turkey is not strengthen the European image when you look at its sociological, cultural, religious, geographical, and political grounds.??? (Y?lmaz, 2007)
Second thing that Hakan Y?lmaz mentioned in his article is the ???bad image of Islam??? on the vantage point of the Europeans. According to him, Europeans did not contrary to Islam in the means of theology but they are contrary to it because of its expression in the public life. In his article Y?lmaz made a research with the European people who came to Turkey, and saw that most of them contrary to Islam not in the means of theology but in the expressing the way of life. When I look at his words, I can see that Europeans are susceptible about expression of Islam in the daily life. They are contrary to Islam because of Gender inequality. Headscarf issue is a symbol of passivity of women in the public life and it is not acceptable for the Europeans. (Y?lmaz, 2007) Also in the same article Y?lmaz talked about the research that ask European people about how Democracy and Islam related with each other and if the radical Islam is a danger for Europe or not, and the answer to these questions was shocking. According to him, 95% of Germans believe that radical Islam is a serious danger for Europe and 98% in Germany again believe that values of Islam is not consistent with democracy. (Y?lmaz, 2007)

Now when I look at the political views about Turkey in the above, I can see that they are very much related with the examples that I gave in the above about the Turkish German citizens who live in the Germany. As you remember, I was talking about the interview that Jewish journalist says his opinion ???an expression of the creeping Islamization of our land.???, when the Turkish people stressed the government about making a mosque in Cologne. Als the same interview he says, he is against the women who wears headscarves, and walks in the German street. (Lander, 2007) Then we can say that the most important reason of annoyance among Turks in the Germany first then the union is religious reasons.
After our footnote about who Merkel is and the importance of it for Turkey, now I am going to talk about Merkel??™s plan for Turkey. When we look at the Merkel??™s view for Turkey, she is officially opposed to Turkey??™s full membership to EU with the group that headed with France. The alternative offer to Turkey is ???privilege partnership??? because in my opinion, she knew that with Sarkozy, Turkey did not accept this offer and with this way she purposes to dissuade Turkey about EU target.
Now after I talked about the Germany??™s today policy over Turkey, now I want to talk about Germany??™s policies over the Israel.
As I said in the beginning of the paper, because of the anti-Semitism in the Europe, and the higher positions of the Jews in Germany after the war, Nazi regime blamed Jews as a scapegoat and killed millions of Jews. As a result of that in 1949 when Adenauer who was the West Germany??™s first prime minister, established a foreign policy among Jews that the legitimacy of the new and young German state should compensate or make up for genocide that Nazi regime did to Jews. As a result of that his policies encouraged by seen spiritual or moral necessity to support the Jewish state. To first step of this policy, in 1952, in Luxembourg Reparations Agreement, Adenauer set his speech for special relationship between Germany and the Israel. (Belkin, 2007) The second step of this policy, according to Belkin, in 1957 two leaders, Adenauer and the Israeli Prime minister David Ben Gurion, established a military links by cover their agreements secret because they afraid the criticism within and outside of the two country.( Belkin, 2007)
Now, when I come to today??™s relations between Germany and Israel, According to Belkin, I can say that today Germany is continue to be the nearest or one of the best ally of the Israel with the USA in the Middle East. As I said, from the beginning of the Adenauer government, Germany??™s foreign policy among the Middle East depends on Israel??™s ???sovereignty and the Security.??? Today there is no change in this policy. To keep this policy alive, according to the Belkin, today Germany works with the USA in the region. According to Belkin, in 2006, when Israel wanted German land troops in UN mission in Israeli-Lebanese border, Germany strongly supported for a more proactive EU role in the Middle East so this demand thought from some groups as a changing role for Germany. (Belkin, 2007) However, in 2006, the German troops in Lebanese coast which was the first time at the history that German troops stood so close to Israel borders. Also German leaders thought about their willing about carry the Israeli- Palestinian conflict into the European and international platform in order to help Israeli- Palestinian peace process during Germany??™s EU presidency in the first half of the year 2007. (Belkin, 2007) Also I can see this friendship clearly said by the Merkel in the January 2006, in her speech, she highlights the Israel??™s importance for the Germany and in her governments period she says to continue feeding this friendship between Germany and the Israel. (Muller, 2007)
In conclusion, when I looked at the Jewish and Turkish foreign policies of Germany from the historical perspective, I saw that in Jewish foreign policy, in the beginning of the Nazi regime, they accused of the bad position of Germany because they were economically in a better position from the Germans, and also anti-Semitism in the Europe, creates an alternative way to Adolf Hitler to show Jews as a target for Germans. As a result of that policy millions of Germans died. And when I looked at the German foreign policy after this, I saw that this mistake creates huge remorse in Germans, and Adenauer adopted new foreign policy among Jews that based on the support of their sovereignty and security in the Middle-East and today this policy is continue with the support of EU to the Israel by German efforts. On the other hand, when I looked the Turkish foreign policy of Germany from the historical perspective, with the Labor Recruitment Agreement, in 1962, when the Turks came to the Germany, they were mostly villagers and they were uneducated and they were religious. Their unsuccessful adaptation to German public life creates annoyance in Germany. Today this Turkish annoyance mostly based on religious differences at least right wing parties stressed these differences. In the Europe, Turkish Foreign policies of European countries changes when the right or left parties come into the power. When right wings come to power as in Germany and France, they opposed the full membership of Turkey to the EU, but when left wings come to power, they supported the Turkey??™s membership to EU, as in Schroder??™s Germany. So in today??™s Germany Foreign policy among Turkey is mostly related with this right-left discussion in Europe. As you know, Merkel is the leader of the right wing party in the Germany and that??™s why, she is opposed to Turkey??™s membership to EU, like Sarkozy in the France. In conclusion, the most important barrier for full membership to EU is religious problems because of these reasons; I hope this will be change in someday.

References:

1) Vogelsang, Peter & Larsen, Brian B. M. (2002), Holocaust: the basics, retrieved January, 05, 2009, from: http://www.holocaust-education.dk/holocaust/hvadhvemhvor.asp

2) White, Jenny B.( 1997), Turks in the new Germany, American Anthropologists, New Series, Vol. 99, No. 4, pp. 754-769, published by Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the American Anthropological Association, retrieved in January, 05, 2009 from JSTOR database.

3) Lander, Mark (2007) Article 15: Germans Split Over a Mosque and the Role of Islam from Annual Editions, Comparative Politics Book 08/09, pp.96-97

4) Mueller, Claus (2005), Integrating Turkish Communities: A German dilemma, Population Research and Policy Review, December, 2006. Vol.25, Iss.5-6, retrieved January, 05, 2009 from ABI Inform Global.

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